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Nagaland, state in extreme northeastern India, bordered on the west and north by Assam state, on the east by Myanmar (formerly known as Burma), on the north by Arunachal Pradesh state, and on the south by Manipur state. Nagaland is one of India's smallest states, with a total area of 16,579 sq km (6400 sq mi). The Naga Hills run through this small state, which has Saramati as its highest peak at a height of 12,600 ft. The main rivers that flow through Nagaland are Dhansiri, Doyang, Dikhu and Jhanji. The terrain is mountainous, thickly wooded, and cut by deep river valleys. There is a wide variety of plant and animal life. Nagaland has a monsoon climate with generally high humidity; rainfall averages between 1800 and 2500 mm (70 and 100 in) a year.



Nagaland has a single-chamber Legislative Assembly with 60 seats. The state sends two members to the Indian national parliament: one to the Rajya Sabha (upper house) and one to the Lok Sabha (lower house). There are seven local government administrative districts - Mokokchung, Tuensang, Mon, Wokha, Zunheboto, Phek and Kohima. The capital is Kohima

Society and Culture

The Nagas, inhabitants of Nagaland, are said to belong to the indo-mongoloid stock, a race whose presence was first noted ten centuries before Christ, at the time of the compilation of the Vedas. The Nagas form more than 20 tribes, as well as numerous subtribes, each having a specific geographic distribution. Though sharing many cultural traits, these tribes have maintained a high degree of isolation and lack cohesion as a single people. The Konyaks are the largest tribe, followed by the Aos, Tangkhuls, Semas, and Angamis. Other tribes include the Lothas, Sangtams, Phoms, Changs, Khiemnungams, Yimchungres, Zeliangs, Chakhesangs (Chokri), and Rengmas.The principal languages are Angami, Ao, Chang, Konyak, Lotha, Sangtam, and Sema.

The Nagas are a handsome and friendly people. High cheek bones, almond eyes, sparkling teeth and bronzed skin set the Nagas apart. In colourful tribal outfits, with bamboo shields sheathed in bear skin and decorated spears, the Nagas are simple people, almost entirely tribal. The social position of a Naga is borne out by the number of bone necklaces he wears

Weaving is a traditional art handed down through generations in Nagaland. Each of the major tribes has its own unique designs and colours. Warm and colourful Naga shawls, hand-woven shoulder bags, decorative spears, table mats, wood carvings and bamboo works make magnificent souvenirs. Tribal dances of the Nagas give us an insight into the inborn reticence of these people. War dances and dances belonging to distinctive tribes, form the major art form in Nagaland. In colourful costumes and jewellery, the dancers go through amazing mock war motions, which could prove very dangerous, if one were to be a little careless. Festivals, marriages, harvests, or just the joy of the moment - are occasions for the Nagas to burst into dance. Some of the important festivals are Sekrenyi, Moatsu, Tuluni andTokhu Emong.

The traditional Naga religion is animistic, though conceptions of a supreme creator and an afterlife exist. Nature is seen to be alive with invisible forces, minor deities, and spirits with which priests and medicine men mediate. In the 19th century, with the advent of British rule, Christianity was introduced, and Baptist missionaries became especially active in the region. As a result, the population now is predominantly Christian.

Nagaland is a rural state. More than four-fifths of the population lives in small, isolated villages. Built on the most prominent points along the ridges of the hills, these villages were once stockaded, with massive wooden gates approached by narrow, sunken paths. The villages are usually divided into khels, or quarters, each with its own headmen and administration. Dimapur, Kohima, Mokokchung, and Tuensang are the only urban centres with more than 20,000 people.

Economy and Infrastructure

Agriculture employs about 90 percent of the people of Nagaland. Rice and corn are the main crops. However, the state is not self-sufficient in food. Shifting cultivation (also known as slash-and-burn agriculture) is widely practiced. Food needs have caused the fallow, or idle, period to be cut to a couple of years, causing erosion and a loss of soil fertility and crop yields. The forests, which cover about 17 percent of Nagaland, are its most important source of income. There are varied mineral reserves, including oil deposits, but little exploitation. The state has adopted an industrialization program since the 1970s.

Until the early 1970s, only cottage industries (e.g., weaving, woodwork, basketry, and pottery) existed in the state. Lack of raw materials, financial resources, and power, as well as poor transport and communications, all hindered industrial growth. Dimapur, the state's leading industrial centre, now has a sugar mill and distillery, a brick factory, and a television assembly plant. Other industries in the state include a khandsari (molasses) mill, rice mills, fruit-canning plants, a paper and pulp factory, a plywood factory, and cabinet and furniture factories.

Chromium, nickel, cobalt, iron ore, and limestone are found in Nagaland, but only low-grade coal deposits are mined at present. Boreholes drilled in the western district of Wokha have yielded oil, and seepages in the Dikhu valley, near Assam, suggest the presence of exploitable oil reserves. Power generation depends mainly on diesel plants, though hydroelectric output has increased. More than 50 percent of Nagaland's power is generated in Assam.

Nagaland depends mostly on roads for transportation. A national highway runs from Dimapur to Kohima and then on to Imphal in Manipur. Another main road links Mokokchung with Amguri in Assam. A short stretch of the Northeast Frontier Railway passing through Dimapur from Assam is the only rail link with the rest of India. Air service is available from Dimapur to Guwahati in Assam and to Calcutta in West Bengal.

The state also possesses natural oil reserves. Infrastructure bottleneck has been an outstanding problem of the state the CMIE index being 71 compared to the All India Average of 100 in 1992-93. It shares border with Myanmar and hence has huge potential to develop border trade


NAGALAND


FACTS & FIGURES



Area : 16,579 sq km
Population : 1,209,546 (1997)
Religion : Christianity, Hinduism
Annual Rainfall : 2,000 mm to 2,500 mm
Maximum Temperature : 31C
Minimum Temperature : 4C
Capital : Kohima
Languages : English, Nagamese, and local dialects
Literacy rate : 61%
Per Capita Income : Rs. 11,174
Urbanization Ratio : 17.21%
Best Time to Visit : September to April


INTRODUCTION
Nagaland is situated on the easternmost region of India. One of the seven sister states India, Nagaland is covered mostly by high-altitude mountains. The hospitability of the people here and their culture and tradition simply touch the heart. Moreover, the Nagaland is an ideal destination for trekking, rock climbing and jungle camping.

Location

Nagaland is situated on the extreme northern east just below Arunachal Pradesh. It has on its long eastern strip the neighboring country Myanmar. The north is bounded by Arunachal Pradesh, while on its west lies the state of Assam. It is bordered by Manipur on its south.

Physical Features

High mountains, deep gorges, green valleys, twisty streams and exotic flora and fauna found in Nagaland give an idea about the physical features of the place.

Climate

The climate of Nagaland is comfortable all through the year. The temperature of the state ranges from 16C to 31C in summer (May to July) and 4C to 24C during winter season. The monsoon that spreads from the month of June to early September is marked by heavy rains.

Flora and Fauna

The flora and fauna of the state is a storehouse of variety. The mountain forests of Nagaland are the natural habitat of a number of rare flora and fauna. Pine (Pinus khasiana), sal (Shorea robusta), bamboo and cane are the most commonly found trees while mithun, bison and golden langurs are the major animals.

HISTORY

Nagas belong to the Mongoloid group who migrated to this hilly region hundreds of years ago. The ethnicity of the state comprises of 15 different tribes of Tibeto-Burmese origin who crossed the neighboring Myanmar (Burma) to reach this territory.

During the British rule in India, the Nagas were known for their extreme courage. During the end of the 19th century, the British, knowing the importance of the tribes here, had established a very good relationship with them. The Nagas later had proven to be the most useful help for the British in fighting and chasing away the Japanese who, during the war advanced up to the present-day capital of the state Kohima.

Sixteen years after India attained her independence, Nagaland was given the status of a full-fledged state on December 1, 1963.

PEOPLE

Ethnicity

Nagaland is a cluster of 15 ethnic groups including Angamis, Aos, Konyaks, Kukis, Lothas, Semas and Wanchus.

Arts and Crafts

The Nagas are known for making wonderful woolen clothes and utilitarian items. The Naga shawl is justly reputed all over India. Naga furniture made of bamboo and cane are also famous for their intricate craftsmanship. The Naga machete is very user-friendly and comfortable to handle. Moreover, baskets, beads, woodcarvings, tablemats, and decorative spears are among the other items that are worth a buy.

Music and Dance

Music is an intimate part of Naga life. Most of the music and songs are folklores passing from one generation to the other. These songs are sometimes accompanied by slow and rhythmic dance that are performed following the instrumentalist’s beat. The flute and the drum are the main musical instruments.

Fairs & Festivals

Nagaland is also the home of some of the most colorful festivals. Singing, dancing and drinking of locally prepared rice beer mark the Naga festivals. Sekrenyi is a festival that belongs to the Angami tribe. This festival signifies the end of the agricultural cycle and lasts for 10 days. Konyak Aoling is another festival that denotes the coming of the New Year. This festival is celebrated in the month of April. Moreover, there are the festivals like Ao Moatsu and the non-traditional tourism festival of May and October that draw good crowds.

Attire

Naga attire is known for its comfort, delicacy of design and the combination of bright colors. The women here wear beautiful hand-woven and embroidered tops along with hand-woven bright colored sarongs. The sarongs are locally known as mekhla and are quite expensive. The men wear typical tribal clothes that include hand-woven wraparounds and kurtas.

Cuisine

Naga cuisine is a delicacy fare especially for those who are fond of non-vegetarian and hot food. Pork meat with bamboo shoot is a common dish among the Naga people. Moreover, the typical Naga food is delicious sans the usual spices in it. The use of raw and red chilly is commonplace in Naga cuisine.

ECONOMY

Infrastructure Phone services : DoT
Domestic airport : Dimapur
Cities linked : Calcutta, Guwahati


Industry

Although the potential for industries related to natural resources and tourism industry is high in Nagaland, the state has a long a way to go in terms of industrialization. The paper mill at Tuli is the only significant industry.

Agriculture

Agriculture is the chief mode of occupation in Nagaland. A major percentage of the population is related with the agricultural activities. The state produces a considerable amount of rice and agriculture in general plays an important role in the economy of the state.

TOURIST CENTERS

Kohima, the capital city of the state, has a number of sites that are worth visiting to get an insight of the place’s rich history. The World War II Cemetery that lies in a beautiful surrounding, the Cathedral of Reconciliation with its striking red roof, the Bara Basti, the Nagaland Museum, Nagaland Zoo and Park are some of the attractions of Kohima.

The sites near Kohima include the tribal village of Khonoma, Dzulekie (famous for waterfalls), Jopfu Peak, Dzukou Valley, Dimapur, etc.

HOW TO REACH

By Air

The only airport of the state is at Dimapur, which connects Nagaland with Guwahati and Calcutta by regular flights.

By Rail

The major railhead is at Dimapur, which lies on the main line of the Northeastern Frontier Railway.

By Road

The Nagaland State Transport Corporation plies regular buses from Dimapur and Kohima to Guwahati, the gateway of northeast India and Shillong.


this is my birth place and i love NAGALAND ..... so much and i miss is so much

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